Jul 10, 2018
Managing apple maggots with insecticides

Adults are black flies with white crossbands on the abdomen (3 on males, 4 on females), a prominent white spot on the posterior end of the thorax and wings marked with black bands.Photo: New York State Ag Experiment Station

Moderate levels of apple maggot adult emergence have been detected at the Michigan State University Trevor Nichols Research Center in Fennville, Michigan, following late June rainfall events. Controlling apple maggots has been traditionally achieved with organophosphate insecticides, like Imidan. Synthetic pyrethroid compounds, like Asana, Warrior, Danitol, Battalion, Mustang Max and Baythroid, are also toxic to adult fruit flies, but are generally viewed to bemoderately effective because they have a shorter field residual. There are several reduced-risk and organophosphate-replacement insecticide products that include apple maggot on their labels.

The neonicotinoids Belay, Admire and Assail are labeled for apple maggot control. They have limited lethal action on adult apple maggots, but provide strong curative activity on eggs and larvae. The Spinosyn compounds Delegate and Entrust are active on apple maggots when ingested, but have shown to be only fair control materials in field trials with high pest pressure, thus are labeled for apple maggot suppression only.

The Diamide compound Exirel and premix Minecto Pro (diamide plus avermectin) are active on apple maggots and labeled for population suppression. Leverage, Voliam Flexi and Endigo are pre-mix compounds that are labeled for apple maggot control.

Compound trade name Chemical class Life stage activity Effectiveness rating on apple maggot*** Residual activity ** Mite flaring potential Effectiveness rating on codling moth***
Imidan Organophosphate Adults and

curative

Excellent 14+ days Relatively safe Excellent
Asana, Warrior, Danitol, Mustang Max, Baythroid, Battalion Pyrethroid Adults Fair to good 7-10 days Highly toxic Fair
Delegate, Entrust* Spinosyn Adults Fair 7-10 days Moderate toxicity Fair to excellent
Assail, Belay, Admire Neonicotinoid Adults and

curative

Good to excellent 10-14 days Relatively safe to moderate toxicity Good to excellent
Exirel Diamide Adults Good 10-14 days Relatively safe Excellent
Leverage Premix (pyrethroid + neonicotinoid) Adults and

curative

Excellent 10-14 days Highly toxic Fair to good
Endigo Premix (pyrethroid + neonicotinoid) Adults and curative Good 10-14 days Highly toxic Good
Voliam Flexi Premix (diamide + neonicotinoid) Adults and curative Excellent 10-14 days Relatively safe to moderate toxicity Excellent
Minecto Pro Premix (diamide + avermectin) Adults Good 10-14 days Relatively safe Excellent

* OMRI-approved for organic production.

** Predator mite toxicity rating.

*** Effectiveness rating of insecticides (2017 Fruit Management GuideMSU Extension bulletin E154).

–  John Wise, Michigan State University

Photo at top: Oviposition punctures appear as small, reddish spots. Photo: Bernard Drouin, Ministry of Ag., Fisheries, and Food





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